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Hemolytic Uremic syndrome caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infections: An overview


Uday YH Abdullah and Imad Ibrahim Ali Al-Sultan and Haitham M Jassim and Yasir A H Ali and Rana M Khorsheed and Atif A Baig (2014) Hemolytic Uremic syndrome caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infections: An overview. Cloning & Transgenesis, 3 (2). pp. 1-9. ISSN 2168-9849 CTG


The purpose of this manuscript is to provide a current overview on the Shiga Toxin / verotoxin-producing
Escherichia coli (STEC) hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) with emphasis on the epidemiology, clinical and
laboratory manifestations, pathogenesis, recommended assessment, treatment strategies and prognosis. Hemolytic
uremic syndrome (HUS) is a cause of the community-acquired acute renal insufficiency in young children. The
outbreak in Germany illustrated both the emerging importance of non-O157 serotypes as agents of human disease
and the potential for large-scale methods of food production and distribution to result in widespread disease.
Children with STEC-induced HUS typically have a prodromal illness that can rapidly develop severe and multisystem
life-threatening complications. STEC infection is acquired through contaminated food or water. Thrombotic
microangiopathy is the mechanism of the development of the characteristic pathologic lesion of HUS. Any patient
with a recent history of diarrhea and signs of a multi-organ disorder requires a proper assessment for the possible
development of HUS. Appropriate laboratory testing for both O157 and non-O157 serotypes, as well as prompt
initiation of infection control procedures for confirmed or suspected cases, will facilitate follow-up investigation to
identify the source of disease and will help to prevent secondary transmission. Currently, diagnostic test to predict
which patients will develop HUS is not available. Supportive care and intravenous fluid replacement are the
cornerstones of treatment because of the current lack of safe and specific therapeutic intervention. Culizumab
and/or plasma treatment may be considered in patients with severe CNS involvement who have a poor prognosis.
None of the multiple therapeutic agents including antithrombotic agents, plasma exchange and/or plasma infusion,
tissue-type plasminogen activator, and oral Shiga toxin-binding agent that have been used is recommended. For
most patients with uncomplicated STEC-associated gastroenteritis who are treated with supportive care, the
prognosis was excellent. Public health interventions are the key to prevent STEC-associated diarrhea and HUS.
Researches will improve the care of patients with different HUS types in the years to come. The identification of
genetic factors associated with HUS will contribute to a better insight of the pathogenesis of HUS and will have
potential therapeutic and preventive implications.

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Item Type: Non-Indexed Article
Collection Type: Institution
Date: 22 March 2014
Journal or Publication Title: Cloning & Transgenesis
ISSN: 2168-9849 CTG
Faculty/Centre/Office: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
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