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Prevalence and risk factors of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in livestock and companion animal in high-risk areas in Malaysia


Kumar, Kiven and Arshad, Siti Suri and Selvarajah, Gayathri Thevi and Abu, Jalila and Abba, Ooi Peck Toung and Bande, Yusuf and Bande, Faruku and Yasmin, A. R. and Sharma, Reuben and Ong, Bee Lee and Abdul Rasid, Anisah and Hashim, Norsuzana and Peli, Amira and Heshini, E. P. and Mohd Kharip Shah, Ahmad Khusaini Prevalence and risk factors of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in livestock and companion animal in high-risk areas in Malaysia. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 50 (4). pp. 741-752. ISSN 1573-7438


Japanese encephalitis (JE) is vector-borne zoonotic disease which causes encephalitis in humans and horses. Clinical signs for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection are not clearly evident in the majority of affected animals. In Malaysia, information
on the prevalence of JEV infection has not been established. Thus, a cross-sectional study was conducted during two periods, December 2015 to January 2016 and March to August in 2016, to determine the prevalence and risk factors in JEV infections among animals and birds in Peninsular Malaysia. Serum samples were harvested from the 416 samples which were collected
from the dogs, cats, water birds, village chicken, jungle fowls, long-tailed macaques, domestic pigs, and cattle in the states of Selangor, Perak, Perlis, Kelantan, and Pahang. The serum samples were screened for JEV antibodies by commercial IgG ELISA kits. A questionnaire was also distributed to obtain information on the animals, birds, and the environmental factors of sampling
areas. The results showed that dogs had the highest seropositive rate of 80% (95% CI: ± 11.69) followed by pigs at 44.4% (95% CI: ± 1.715), cattle at 32.2% (95% CI: ± 1.058), birds at 28.9% (95% CI: ± 5.757), cats at 15.6% (95% CI: ± 7.38), and monkeys at 14.3% (95% CI: ± 1.882). The study also showed that JEV seropositivity was high in young animals and in areas where mosquito vectors and migrating birds were prevalent.

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Additional Metadata

Item Type: Indexed Article
Collection Type: Institution
Journal or Publication Title: Tropical Animal Health and Production
ISSN: 1573-7438
Uncontrolled Keywords: Japanese encephalitis; Malaysia; Risk factor; ELISA; Prevalence
Faculty/Centre/Office: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
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