Digital Special Collection Portal

Synthesis of Polysorbate 20 catalysed by Carbon/silica Precursor from rice husk for production of 2-Chloroethyl Benzoate


Latiman, Nor Adlina (2018) Synthesis of Polysorbate 20 catalysed by Carbon/silica Precursor from rice husk for production of 2-Chloroethyl Benzoate. Final Year Project thesis, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan. (Submitted)


In agriculture industry, rice husk is popularly known as highly abundant agricultural waste due to exponentially-rising population. Polysorbate 20 is one of the polymer waste, functioning as a stabilizer in food industry. Rice husk was treated by converting into carbon/silica (C/Si02) via carbonisation at different temperature; 300 °C, 350 °C, 400 °C and 450 °C. In this study, the different carbonisation temperature were applied to determine the relationship between carbonisation temperature and the physicochemical properties. Sulfonated carbon/silica catalyst (SO3H-C/Si02-300°C, SO3H-C/Si02-350°C, SO3H-C/Si02-400°C and SO3H-C/Si02-450°C) were fabricated by using sulphuric acid treatment. These heterogeneous acid catalysts were used in catalytic reaction between polysorbate 20 and benzoyl chloride to produce 2- chloroethyl benzoate. The physicochemical properties of the catalysts were analysed by XRD, TGA and FTIR. The XRD pattern confirmed the catalysts were amorphous. TGA showed that the ratio of C/Si02 were decreased as the carbonisation temperature increased. FTIR revealed the absorbance of functional groups such as COOH, S=0 and C=C were decreased when the temperature decreased. The catalytic reaction showed that SO3H-C/Si02-300°C catalyst was the best catalyst by achieving 96% conversion and 9% yield of 2-chloroethyl benzoate.

Download File / URL

Full text not available from this repository.

Additional Metadata

Item Type: Undergraduate Final Project Report
Collection Type: Final Year Project
Date: 2018
Call Number: SBT 2018 040
Supervisor: Dr. Syed Muhammad Al-Amsyar Bin Syed Abd Kadir
Programme: Bioindustrial Technology
Institution: Universiti Malaysia Kelantan
Faculty/Centre/Office: Faculty of Bioengineering and Technology
Statistic Details: View Download Statistic

Edit Record (Admin Only)

View Item View Item

The Office of Library and Knowledge Management, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, 16300 Bachok, Kelantan.
Digital Special Collection (UMK Repository) supports OAI 2.0 with a base URL of