Digital Special Collection Portal

Aetiopathogenesis of toe tumours in camels (Camelus Dromedarius).


Maher Mohammed Baker (2017) Aetiopathogenesis of toe tumours in camels (Camelus Dromedarius). Doctoral thesis, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan.


Morphological features and haematology of toe tumour (TT) in camels was the aspects investigated. The proposed etiology of TT was identified as papillomavirus by conventional PCR. A total of 150 cases was studied from a range of different camel breeds. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) diagnosed in 114 cases (76.0%) of TT, fibroma in 32 (21.33%) camels and spiny keratoderma in 4 (2.67 %). Sudani camel breed found to be most affected with TT as compared to other breeds. Higher prevalence (P<0.0001) has been recorded in the medial toes of the forelimbs (96.67%). The SCC was characterized by ulceration with severe hemorrhage and swelling of the foot sole. The medial toenails showed high significant (P<0.0001). When affected with tumours in 145 (96.67%) cases; especially in camels with SCC 109 (75.17%). A significant increase (P<0.001) in the levels of packed cell volume, hemoglobin and red blood cell (P<0.05) has been observed in camels with SCC, fibroma and spiny keratoderma when compared to healthy controls. The total white blood cell, neutrophil and monocytes counts were found significantly increased (P<0.001) in camels diagnosed with all three common TT. Camels with TT exhibited a significant decreased (P<0.0001) in the level of lymphocytes unlike fibroma and spiny keratoderma. The statistical results of serum biochemical analysis in camels with SCC showed significant decreased (P<0.001) in the levels of glucose, gamma- glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase and total protein. Significant increase of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, creatinine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase in SCC cases. Significant high levels of serum copper (P < 0.001) in TT cases were observed as compared with normal healthy controls. These hematological and biochemical results can be valuable markers used to follow up camels with SCC and monitoring their response to treatment. The morphological criteria implementing a database for hematology and blood chemistry of TT in camels along with the detection of the papilloma virus by conventional PCR test can be the source of reliable data for the monitoring work in future. The overall prevalence rate of TT was highly significant (P<0.0001) in camel population. Out of 114 SCC cases, 26 was positive PCR-PV but the other type’s tumours are negative. The accession numbers were recorded in the GenBank as KX150707, KX150708, and KX150709. The homology revealed subgenomic fragments of three novel positive PVs related to bovine papillomavirus L1 gene as their presence were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Importance of study arise when consider the loss of camels price in racing and beauty festivals.

Download File / URL

[thumbnail of MAHER MOHAMMED BAKER.pdf] Text
MAHER MOHAMMED BAKER.pdf - Submitted Version
Restricted to Registered users only

Download (5MB)

Additional Metadata

Item Type: UMK Etheses
Collection Type: Thesis
Date: 2017
Number of Pages: 272
Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Imad Ibrahim Ali Al-Sultan
Programme: Doctor of Philosophy
Institution: Universiti Malaysia Kelantan
Subjects: R Medicine > RZ Other systems of medicine
Faculty/Centre/Office: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
Statistic Details: View Download Statistic

Edit Record (Admin Only)

View Item View Item

The Office of Library and Knowledge Management, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, 16300 Bachok, Kelantan.
Digital Special Collection (UMK Repository) supports OAI 2.0 with a base URL of